AR 2011/3, Letnik XII
Uvodnik
Posebna številka AR 2o11 3 nosi posebni pečat Krasa: obravnava predvsem kamen. Objavljeni so predvsem nastopi na konferenci Kras2o11, ki je tekla 2o. decembra 2o11 v hotelu Maestoso v Lipici. Konferenca je bila organizirana kot Promocija znanosti ARRS, Javne agencije za raziskovalno dejavnost Republike Slovenije, v okviru programa Projekta Kras2o11, ki ima pokrovitelje: UNESCO, SAZU Slovensko akademijo znanosti in umetnosti, Univerzo v Ljubljani, družbo Mediacarso, revijo Kras. Ob predlagani ustanovitvi Organizacije za suhi zid Slovenije so poslale pisma stanovske organizacije v svetu:
CERAV, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur l'Architecture Vernaculaire, Paris
ARTE, Asociacion por la Arquitectura rural Tradicional de Extremadura, Caceres
4 Grada - DRAGODID, Komiža Hrvatska
AMPS, Alleanza Mondiale per il Paesaggio Terazzato, Arnasco Genova
ISIS Symmetry, Int. Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Symmetry, Melbourne - Budapest

Uvodni plenarni  predavanji sta imela profesor Juvanec in docent Zupančič. Prof. Borut Juvanec je podal oris arhitekture kamna, kaj vse je v kamnu mogoče in kaj vse je človek s kamnom sestavil. Naslov je Kamen, Kras, arhitektura. Kamen je eden prvih gradnikov človekovega bivališča. Kompozicije iz kamna pa niso le bivališča, so tudi svetišča, objekti za prikazovanje čudeža ali napovedovanja sreče, so grobnice, pasti in uporabni objekti za pridobivanje vode, pa za pospeševanje plodnosti tal in zdravja, zaščite, celo pred kugo. Docent Domen Zupančič je predstavil ekonomiko kot enega vodil pri konstruiranju elementov v kamnu. Naslov njegovega nastopa je bil Splošni oris ekonomike z vidika izumljanja prostorskih oblik. Ekonomika je pomembnejša kot mislimo: posebej vpliva na oblikovanje kompozicij v kamnu. Analitična predstavitev objekta mora zagotoviti kritično presojo, da ga lahko objektivno umestimo v arhitekturo.

Predavanja:
Pomen Krasa za krasoslovje, akademik prof. dr. Andrej Kranjc, SAZU Ljubljana
Za odstiranje problematike Krasa je predavanje akademika Kranjca izjemnega pomena. Pregled poimenovanja in umeščanja prostora sega v predzgodovino, saj so jo že Rimljani povzeli kot Carsus, prva slovenska inačica pa sega vsaj v deveto stoletje. Prostor kraškega sveta sega po Hohenwartu (1830) od Vidma preko našega Krasa in Dalmacije, Hercegovine, Albanije do Grčije, na Zakintosu.
Politika krša: krajobrazi integracije, dr Jadran Kale, Univerzitet u Zadru, Gradski muzej Šibenik
Krajinske značilnosti kraškega sveta so se od antičnih centurij, skozi fevdalizem do polpretekle dobe prisiljenega industrializma le malo spreminjale: gre za kamen in za ekonomiko, za tehnologije agrikulture in živinoreje. Danes smo priča oživljanju snovne in nesnovne kulturne dediščine, zato so posegi v organizacijo ohranjanja toliko pomembnejši.
Prazgodovinska gradišča – oblika poselitve na Krasu, prof. ddr. Mitja Guštin, Univerza na Primorskem, Inštitut za dediščino Sredozemlja
Pomembna informacija o številu kamnitih struktur iz predzgodovinske dobe preseneča: ne zaradi števila, pač pa zaradi našega neznanja. Zidovi, ki označujejo kulturo nekdanjih prebivalcev, še stojijo in bi jih bilo treba predvsem predstaviti širši javnosti. Način uporabe kamna v obrambne namene (zidovi, gradišča) moramo kot najstarejše kompozicije vključiti v predstavitveni sistem kraškega sveta.
Bioclimatic Architecture, the symbiosis between people and water in Bosnia and Herzegovina, prof. dr. Ahmet Hadrović, dekan, Univerzitet u Sarajevu, AF
Voda je ključni element simbioze človeka z naravo. Arhitektura to simbiozo udejanja: s svojimi elementi ji omogoča delovanje, istočasno pa spreminja krajino, da ta postane še pomemnejši element človekovega posega vanjo. Primeri iz Hercegovine to potrjujejo.
Vodnjaki na Krasu, pojav, načini gradnje, oblike, Eda Belingar, ZVKDS Nova Gorica
Pregled kraških vodnjakov zahteva sistem po tehnologiji, po oblikah, po uporabi. Vodnjak na Krasu je odprt ali zaprt, za javno ali za zasebno rabo, z bolj ali manj označeno vsebino in lastništvom.
Kras v srcu in očeh, Jadran Sterle, RTV Ljubljana
Kras ima svojevrstno vidno podobo, kjer se prepletajo kmečka istovetnost in današnja 'meščansko-podeželska' kultura. Sestav obeh mora zagotoviti višjo vrednost. S pomočjo današnjih tehnologij moramo to gojiti, razvijati in javnosti predvsem pokazati. Upoštevanje vseh: navidezne in dejanske, fizične predstavitve in duhovnih vrednot človeka, ki s svojim videnjem in čutenjem bogati to dediščino tudi danes, v predstavitev je treba vgraditi vse te elemente.
Suhi zid – življenjski prostor, dr.  Andrej Gogala, Prirodoslovni muzej Slovenije
Izjemno zanimiv prikaz življenja med kamni, kot ga lahko prikaže le predan biolog, ki odkriva, vidi in pozna skrivnosti življenja, ki so navadnemu človeku običajno skrite. Predstavitev skromnega življenja ponazarja napore tudi preživetja človeka v kamnu, vse od prazgodovine do danes.
Ustno izročilo o kraški krajini, doc. dr. Katja Hrobat Virloget, Univerza na Primorskem, ZRS
Pomembno področje kulture človeka, ki je povsem presenetljivo vezano na prostor (smrt na primer na razmejnice) je vse premalo raziskovano in v javnosti - tudi v strokovnih - premalo poznano. Onostranstvo, hrast in katastrske razmejnice so dokaz še danes. Primer je baba, ki kaže v vseevropskem prostoru arhaičen mitski lik, ne le v kraškem svetu.
Ustvarjanje kraške kulturne dediščine med teorijo in prakso, dr. Jasna Fakin Bajec, Znanstveno raziskovalni center SAZU
Razumevanje kulturne dediščine vklučuje tudi pomen ohranjanja, zaščite in varovanja kulturnih stvaritev prednikov.
Kamniti osamelci v ljudskem izročilu Lokve, Boris Čok, mojster suhega zidu, Lokev
Kamniti osamelci so kamni ali kamnite structure posebnih oblik, ki so jih zaradi tega ljudje posvojili in jim dodali posebne lastnosti. Te so lahko fizične (doseg, razkorak …) ali tudi mitske, povsem uporabne (voda, preživetje …) ali le vizualne (višina, podobnost, oblikovanost …). Vrednote so si ljudje ustvarili sami, razumevanje vrednot pa je podkrepljeno z oblikami, s poimenovanjem, z verovanjem. Okolica Lokve je s temi dokazili izjemno bogata.
Kulturna baština Sjevernog Velebita - karakteristike, interpretacija, modeli obnove i održivog korištenja, Rene Lisac, arhitekt, mladi raziskovalec Sveučilišta u Zagrebu, AF (Martina Ivanuš, Grga Frangeš)
Teoretski sistem kulture severnega Velebita s pašniškim načinom življenja in planšarsko arhitekturo je plod resnega znanatvenega in raziskovalnega arhitekture, etnologije in krajinarstva. Zanimivi stopničasti prehodi definirajo predvsem arhitekturo: velikost, oblikovanost in detajle, kar je plod dosegljivih materialov in okolja, pa potreb in možnosti ljudi.  Cilj postavljenega modela je postavitev aktivnega sistema ohranitve kulturne dediščine, ki teče od interpretacije do izvedbe skladno.
Kras2o11: pomen vernakularne arhitekture v vzgoji in izobraževanju, doc. dr. Beatriz Tomšič Čerkez, Univerza v Ljubljani, Pedagoška fakulteta
Šolski sistem je do zdaj praviloma vernakularno arhitekturo prezrl in je sploh ni omenjal. Napori za predstavljanje kulture naših dedov že od vrtca in vse do univerze so nujni, če hočemo ohraniti kulturo tudi na tem področju. Na primeru kamna je to še najbolj preprosto, saj dobijo učenci teorijo in prakso prikazano v naravi. Projekt Kras2o11 kaže v tem kontekstu že kar nekaj rezultatov.
Kras in Lipica, arhitektka Nataša Kolenc, Kobilarna Lipica
Kras in Kobilarna Lipica sta povezani s krajino in s kraškimi pojavi. Od tod problematika, ki je v Kobilarni vezana še na ekonomiko, na turizem in na tehnološke procese. Kultura je vključena z muzejem Lipikum, ki je vzorčen primer dobre prakse, tako v problematiki muzealstva, predstavitev in urejanja prostora.

Konferenca je končala delo s sprejetjem sklepov: o začetku postopka za ustanovitev Organizacije za suhi zid Slovenije in z oblikovanjem organov Projekta Kras2o11, v okviru katerega bo eden prvih podprojektov tudi 'Kulturna krajina kraškega sveta', nekak živi muzej krasa v zgodovinskih okvirih med Vidmom in Zakintosom.

V reviji so pretežno članki z nastopov konference. Upam, da vam bodo všeč.

Editorial
This special issue of AR 2011 3 bears the special stamp of the Karst: it deals primarily with stone. It is primarily devoted to the conference papers of the Karst2011 conference which took place on December 20, 2011 at the Hotel Maestoso in Lipica. The conference was organised as a Promotion of Science by the Slovenian Research Agency (ARRS) within the framework of the Karst2011 project, which is supported by UNESCO, SASA (Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts), the University of Ljubljana, the Mediacarso company and Kras magazine. On the occasion of the proposed establishment of the Dry Stone Wall Organisation of Slovenia, letters of support were received from professional organisations from around the world:
CERAV, Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur l'Architecture Vernaculaire, Paris
ARTE, Asociacion por la Arquitectura rural Tradicional de Extremadura, Caceres
4 Grada - DRAGODID, Komiža Hrvatska
AMPS, Alleanza Mondiale per il Paesaggio Terazzato, Arnasco Genova
ISIS Symmetry, Int. Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of Symmetry, Melbourne - Budapest

The introductory plenary lectures were by Professor Juvanec and Assistant Professor Zupančič. Prof. Borut Juvanec presented an outline of architecture in stone, of the types of constructions for which it can be used and the objects that people have assembled from stone. The title is Stone, the Karst, architecture. Stone is one of the earliest materials to be used by humans in the construction of dwellings. Yet stone structures are not merely dwellings; they can also be sanctuaries, sites of miracles or divination, tombs, traps, practical structures for storing water , improving soil fertility, health, or for protection, even against plague. In the paper A general outline of economics from the viewpoint of inventing spatial forms. Economics is Assistant Prof. Domen Zupančič presents economics as one of the parameters in the construction of stone elements. Economics is more important than is generally believed: it has a particular influence on shaping compositions in stone. An analytical presentation of a structure has to provide a critical assesment so that we can objectively confer it a place in architecture.

Lectures:
The significance of the Karst for karstology
by Prof. Andrej Kranjc, member of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SASA), Ljubljana
Prof. Kranjc's lecture is exceptionaly important for presenting issues connected to the Karst. A review of names and identities of the area extends back to pre-historic times, as the Romans, in fact, adopted the exisiting name, Carsus; its first Slovene version dates back to at least the ninth century. Hohenwart (1830) defined the karstic region as extending from the Udine area across the Slovenian Karst, Dalmatia, Herzegovina, Albania to Greece, and ending in Zakintos.
The policy of the Karst: landscapes of integration, Dr. Jadran Kale, University of Zadar, City Museum of Šibenik
The characteristics of the karst landscape have changed little since the Roman occupation, feudalism and the recent past of enforced industrialism: it is all a matter of stone and economics, the technology of agriculture and animal husbandry. Today, we are witnessing a revitalisation of tangible and intangible cultural heritage, which is why activities regarding  the organisation of preservation are so much more important.
Prehistoric forts: forms of settlement in the Karst, Prof. Mitja Guštin, University of Primorska, Institute for Mediteranean Heritage
Significant information about the number of stone structures in the prehistoric period comes as a surprise: not because of the number of such structures, but because of our ignorance. The walls marking the culture of the former inhabitants are still standing and should, first of all, be presented to a wider public. The methods of using stone for defensive purposes (walls, forts) should be included in a system representing the karstic world as having the oldest stone constructions.
Bioclimatic Architecture, the symbiosis between people and water in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Prof. Ahmet Hadrović, Dean, University of Sarajevo, Faculty of Architecture
Water is the key element in the symbiosis between people and nature. Architecture enacts this symbiosis. Examples in Herzegovina corroborate this statement.
Wells in the Karst: the phenomenon, construction types, forms, Eda Belingar, ZVKDS (Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage), Nova Gorica
A review of karstic water wells requires a system involving technological, formal and usage criteria. Wells in the Karst are either open or closed, for private or public use, and their content and ownership are more or less indicated.
The Karst in the heart and eyes, Jadran Sterle, RTV Ljubljana
The Karst has a particular visual image, in which rustic identity and today's 'urban-rural' culture intertwine, a composition of both. This composition has to provide a higher value. With the aid of today's technologies, we must cultivate it, develop it and above all publicly show it. All factors must be taken into consideration: the virtual and the physical, and the spiritual values of the people who with their way of seeing and feeling continue to enrich this heritage. A presentation must include all these elements.
Dry stone wall – a habitat, Dr. Andrej Gogala, Museum of Natural Science of Slovenia
An exceptionally interesting presentation of life among the stones as only a dedicated biologist could produce - one who discovers, sees and knows the secrets of life which usually remain hidden from the average person. The presentation of this modest life also illustrates human efforts to survive among the stones from pre-history to the present.
Oral traditions about the Karst landscape, Assistant Prof. Katja Hrobat Virloget, University of Primorska, Science and Research Centre (ZRS)
There is an important area of human culture which is linked with space (death, for example, is linked with boundaries) which is all too little investigated and known to the public, including researchers. The other world, oak and cadastral boundaries, bear witness to this fact. An example is Baba, a figure from the karstic world, who is also an archaic pan-European mythical figure.
Creating Karst cultural heritage between theory and practice, Dr. Jasna Fakin Bajec, Research Centre of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (ZRC SAZU)
Understanding cultural heritage also involves the significance of preserving and protecting cultural artefacts of our forebears.
Solitary rocks in the popular tradition of Lokev, Boris Čok, master builder of dry stone walling, Lokev
Solitary rocks are particularly shaped stones or stone structures whose shapes have prompted people to adopt them and bestow with special characteristics; these may be physical (their extent), mythical, quite practical (water, survival) or merely visual (height, similarity, form). The values of these characteristics were generated by people, and their understanding of the values represented by shapes, names and beliefs. Around Lokev, evidence for this phenomenon is abundant.
The cultural heritage of North Velebit – characteristics, interpretation, models of revitalisation and sustainable use, Rene Lisac, architect, trainee researcher at the University of Zagreb, Faculty of Architecture (Martina Ivanuš, Grga Frangeš)
The theoretical system of the culture of North Velebit, with its pastoral life-style and traditional high-mountain architecture is the outcome of a serious scholarly investigation of architecture, ethnology and landscape architecture. Interesting graded transitions are described, which above all define architecture: size, form and details, which are the result of the available materials and environment, as well as people's requirements and skills. The objective of the proposed model is to produce an active system for preserving cultural heritage which will operate harmoniously from interpretation to implementation.
Karst2011: the significance of vernacular architecture in training and education, Assistant Prof. Beatriz Tomšič Čerkez, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Education
The school system has usually ignored vernacular architecture and never mentions it. Endeavours to present the culture of our forebears should be included throughout the whole of a person's education, from nursery school to university if we wish to keep our culture alive. In the case of stone, the task is simple, as students are exposed to both theory and practice in the natural environment. The Karst2011 project has produced some good results in this context.
The Karst and Lipica, Nataša Kolenc, architect, Lipica Stud Farm
The Karst and Lipica Stud Farm are linked together by the landscape and karstic phenomena. Hence, issues which at the Stud Farm are additionally linked to economics, tourism and technological processes. The Lipikum Museum adds the cultural component. The Museum is an example of good practice in terms of museology issues, presentations and the arrangement of space.

The conference concluded with the adoption of conclusions on the process for establishing the Dry stone Organisation of Slovenia and by setting up the organisation of the Karst2011 project. One of the first sub-projects of Karst2011 will also 'The cultural landscape of the karstic world', a kind of live museum of the karst from the historical perspective from Udine to Zakintos.

The current issue mainly contains conference papers. I hope you enjoy them.

1. Uvodna stran / Introduction

2. Uredništvo e - obrazci / Editing and e-forms

3. Zadnja številka / Recent magazine

4. Arhiv revij / Archive

5. Naročanje / Ordering

 

Vsebina / Contents

Uvodnik / Editorial
Članki / Articles

Borut Juvanec     
KAMEN, KRAS, ARHITEKTURA  /
STONE, THE KARST PLATEAU, ARCHITECTURE

Domen Zupančič  
SPLOŠNI ORIS EKONOMIKE Z VIDIKA IZUMLJANJA PROSTORSKIH OBLIK /
A GENERAL OUTLINE OF ECONOMICS FROM THE VIEWPOINT OF INVENTING SPATIAL FORMS

Andrej Kranjc    
POMEN KRASA ZA KRASOSLOVJE  /
THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE KARST FOR KARSTOLOGY

Mitja Guštin     
GRADIŠČA – ODSEVI PRAZGODOVINSKE POSELITVE  /
HILLFORTS – REFLECTIONS OF PREHISTORIC SETTLEMENT

Jadran Kale     
UPRAVLJANJE KULTURNIM RESURSIMA KRŠKIH KRAJOLIKA /
MANAGING THE CULTURAL RESOURCES OF KARST LANDSCAPES

Beatriz Tomšič Čerkez   
KRAS2O11: IZKUŠENJSKO UČENJE KOT KLJUČ ZA RAZŠIRJANJE ZNANJA O VREDNOTAH KAMNA  /
THE KRAS2011: EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING AS A KEY TO DISSEMINATING KNOWLEDGE ABOUT THE VALUE OF STONE

Katja Hrobat Virloget     
USTNO IZROČILO O KRAŠKI KRAJINI. O ČASU, PROSTORU IN MITIČNI BABI  /
THE ORAL TRADITION OF THE KARST LANDSCAPE. ON TIME, SPACE AND THE MYTHICAL BABA

Jelena Uršič    
ZNANJE, IZKUŠNJE IN ZABAVA V KAMNU  /
KNOWLEDGE, EXPERIENCE AND ENTERTAINMENT INVOLVING STONE

Tina Demšar Vreš    
PREPLET KRAJINE IN AVTOHTONE ARHITEKTURE OTOKOV SEVERNEGA KVARNERJA  /
THE INTERTWINING OF LANDSCAPE AND NATIVE ARCHITECTURE OF THE NORTHERN KVARNER ISLANDS 

Jasna Fakin Bajec     
USTVARJANJE KRAŠKE KULTURNE DEDIŠČINE MED TEORIJO IN PRAKSO  /
CREATING  KARSTIC CULTURAL HERITAGE BETWEEN THEORY AND PRACTICE

Romana Kačič, Mattias Lidén    
REVITALISATION OF VINEYARDS IN THE TERRACED LANDSCAPE ON THE KARST RIDGE OF TRIESTE  /
OŽIVLJANJE VINOGRADOV V TERASASTI POKRAJINI TRŽAŠKEGA KRAŠKEGA ROBA

Eda Belingar      
UPORABA KAMNA V ŽIVLJENJU KRAŠEVCEV  /
THE USE OF STONE IN THE LIFE OF THE KARST PEOPLE

Barbara Jordan, Neža Pahor, Teja Bajt, Maja Brate
ŽIVLJENJE NA KRASU  /
LIFE IN THE KARST

Maja Uranič, Blaž Mlinšek, Katja Malus   
KRAŠKE ZGODBE  /
STORIES FROM THE KARST