AR 2010/2, Letnik XI
Uvodnik

Z ozirom na tekoče tehnične in še bolj finančne težave sem vesel, da je ta številka pred vami. Kar nekaj uspehov je treba omeniti, tako uredništva AR kot Fakultete za arhitekturo. Ampak o tem kasneje. Naj začnem z vsebino, ki je tokrat izjemno raznolika:

Kolega dr Igor Toš je razprostrl problematiko, s katero se ukvarja in ki je pravzaprav tako pomembna, pa tako malo znana in malo cenjena, čeprav so vanjo vpleteni strokovnjaki kot so Nold Egenter (ki je predaval na nekaj kongresih ALPE ADRIA v Sloveniji, ima pa tudi kak članek v AR), Amos Rapaport, Paul Oliver iz Oxforda (ki tudi dobro pozna Slovenijo s kongresov o vernakularni arhitekturi ALPE ADRIA, pa tudi z obiska podiplomcev oxfordske univerze), pa profesor Christian Lassure kot predsednik CERAV v Parizu. V teh okvirih ocenjuje dr Toš problematiko v članku z naslovom ANTROPOLOGIJA IN VERNAKULARNO KOT IZVORA RAZUMEVANJA ANTROPOGENEGA OKOLJA. Kaže na aktualno strukturo antropologije in še nezadostno razvitost tistega njenega področja, ki se ukvarja z odnosom človeka in (predvsem antropogenega, materialno-prostorskega) okolja. Prikazuje discipline arhitekturne in urbane antropologije, analizira pomen raziskovanja vernakularne arhitekture. Kot uvodni članek je kar prava tema.

Arhitektka in slikarka dr Beatriz Tomšič Čerkez, ki sicer prihaja iz Južne Amerike in je kulturno vpeta tudi v balkanska okolja, vnaša v razmišljanju o prepoznavnosti kar nekaj zanimivih pogledov. Članek nosi naslov ARHITEKTURA MED GRADNJO IN RUŠENJEM IDENTITETE in v njem odpira razpravo o povezavah med identiteto, tradicijo in arhitekturno dediščino in o pomenu specifičnih posegov v prostor, pri razumevanju katerih je vloga omenjenih povezav ključna. Pri razpravi izhaja teoretično iz odnosa narodov, narodnosti in verskih pripadnosti, praktično pa razvija problem na primeru povojne rekonstrukcije v mestu Stolac v Bosni in Hercegovini.

Profesorica arhitekture iz Sarajeva dr Vjekoslava Sanković Simčić opisuje povsem konkretne primere arhitekturnih posegov zadnjih let. Pogumno se postavlja na stališča stroke in ocenjuje rezultate arhitekture v BIH. Članku je dala naslov INTEGRACIJA STARO-NOVO. V njem razpreda, da ima lahko staro z novim široko uporabno vrednost v procesu zaščite in revitalizacije kulturne dediščine. Trdi, da je problem toliko zakompliciran kot je kompleksen sam postopek varovanja dediščine in njene aktivne zaščite. V postopkih izvedbe je nujno upoštevati znanstvene aksiome in načela stroke. Kjer ni mogoče izvesti konservatorsko restavratorskega posega vzpostavitve integritete avtentičnih vrednot na originalni način, z originalnimi pomagali in v enakem materialu, mora nova intervencija odražati sodobne tehnične in tehnološke dosege svojega časa. Še enkrat ponavljam, da je največja vrednota članka pogumno stališče stroke in osebe, ki kritično gleda na problematiko v prostoru.

Profesorica Martina Zbašnik-Senegačnik kot arhitektka z naše šole in profesor Andrej Senegačnik, strojnik na Strojni fakulteti Ljubljanske univerze družno ocenjujeta tako v medijih opevano in modno energetsko gradnjo. Z znanstvenim pristopom, s podatki in s primeri dokazujeta, da je pasivna hiša moderna in ne modna. Cenene objave in reklame v medijih to problematiko tudi namerno vse preveč zamegljujejo. Resno delo je prišlo v pravem času, naslov članka pa je kratek: PREDNOSTI PASIVNE HIŠE. To je trenutno optimalna energijsko varčna zgradba. Zaradi kvalitetnega toplotnega ovoja, ustrezne zrakotesnosti in vgrajenega sistema kontroliranega prezračevanja z vračanjem toplote odpadnega zraka so njene letne potrebe po energiji za ogrevanje največ 15 kWh/(m2a), kar pokriva toplozračno ogrevanje. Pasivna hiša ima številne prednosti pred objekti, v katerih živimo danes in smo jih gradili včeraj.

Profesor iz Avstrije, dr Alexander G. Keul sledi uporabi pasivnih zgradb in v članku VREDNOTENJE OSMIH VEČNADSTROPNIH AVSTRIJSKIH PASIVNIH STANOVANJSKIH ZGRADB PO VSELITVI. Opisuje predvsem anketne rezultate ljudi, ki v takih zgradbah že živijo. Zadovoljstvo se veča s časom: to kaže na dejansko vrednost tega sistema. Pravi, da je v okoliščinah podnebnih sprememb trajnostna stanovanjska gradnja postala ne le strokovni, arhitektski, pač pa predvsem politični program. Ključno vprašanje pri uresničevanju koncepta trajnostne gradnje v primeru pasivnih stanovanjskih hiš je, kako uporabniki takšne hiše sprejemajo. Vrednotenje po vselitvi je raziskovalna tehnika družbenega modela, ki nudi reprezentativna mnenja uporabnikov glede inovacij v stanovanjski gradnji. Z ozirom, da je v sosedni deželi ta gradnja že nekaj časa v teku, so izsledki zanimivi tudi za nas.

Mlada raziskovalka Larisa Brojan je v okviru doktorskega študija na naši šoli našla zanimiv izziv: slamo. V članku EKOLOŠKE IN ENERGIJSKO VARČNE HIŠE IZ SLAMNATIH BAL predstavlja tematiko, ki ni tako zelo nova in kaže na kar nekaj zanimivih iztočnic, ki bi znale ta material s pridom uporabiti tudi v arhitekturi jutri. Gradnja s slamnatimi balami v času, ko je velik poudarek na okolju prijazni gradnji, namreč dobiva nove razsežnosti. Dolgo časa je bila aktualna le v krogu ljudi, ki so želeli graditi in bivati skladno z naravo, vse pogosteje pa je možno zaslediti koncepte moderne gradnje, kjer je v povsem resni gradnji predvidena uporaba slamnatih bal. Primerjava bilanc porabljene energije za proizvodnjo različnih gradiv razkriva, da je poraba energije pri izdelavi slamnatih bal nizka, kar pomeni, da ima gradnja s tem materialom minimalen ogljikov in ekološki odtis. Slama ima namreč prav nasprotne učinke: namesto sproščanja ogljika v atmosfero ogljik dobesedno shranjuje. Po kakem praktičnem prikazu in z računskimi dokazi bo v bodoče članku še bolj zanimivo slediti.

Docentka dr Biljana Arandjelović in arhitektka Ana Momčilović-Petronijević prihajata iz Srbije, kjer odkrivata - sicer žalostne - ostanke vernakularne arhitekture, ki so še vedno živi. V članku ARHITEKTURA VODNIH MLINOV V JUŽNI SRBIJI pišeta o nizu najdenih objektov z izjemno zanimivimi tehničnimi rešitvami. Mlinov z navpično osjo v Evropi namreč skorajda ni. Seveda gre za okoliščine: za razmeroma malo vode z velikim padcem. Sistem pa dopušča izjemno preproste rešitve, saj ni treba prenosov vrtečih se elementov in mnogokrat ne prenosov hitrosti vrtenja. Posebej zanimive so rešitve 'skupnih objektov', ki jih v sistemih urbanizacije sicer poznamo, v vernakularni arhitekturi pa nastopajo le v najbolj ogroženih sredinah (v Alpah na primer). Srednjeveški zgodovinski viri poročajo, da so poleg samostanskih in cerkvenih vodnih mlinov obstajali tudi mlini v lasti vasi ali vaških okrožij. V bližnji preteklosti je bilo ob rekah vzhodne Srbije mogoče najti mnogo primernih lokacij za vodne mline. Proti koncu turške vladavine in med obema vojnama je število prebivalstva po vaseh naraščalo. Zaradi večjih potreb je bila tedaj zgrajena večina vodnih mlinov, ki danes bolj ali manj propadajo.

Zdi se, da je problematika zelo podobna naši: a prav arhitekti in šole za arhitekturo smo poklicani, da v odsotnosti rezultatov za to postavljenih vladnih služb za varovanje kulturne, torej tudi arhitekturne dediščine, postavimo sisteme inventariziranja, dokumentiranja, analiziranja, varovanja, obnove, prenove in oživljanja. Upam, da bomo s skupnimi močmi (svetovne znanstvene in strokovne organizacije kot je ICOMOS, Evropska unija, Slovenija in Srbija) lahko tudi tam kaj postorili. In prav v Sloveniji imamo na tem področju kar nekaj izkupšenj in rezultatov.

Mlada pravnica, takoj po diplomi, Saša Krajnc, se je lotila zanimive problematike, ki se ji arhitekti vse premalo posvečamo: AVTORSKA PRAVICA KOT INSTRUMENT ZAŠČITE ARHITEKTURNIH DEL. Avtorskopravna zaščita arhitekturnih del nedvomno spada med relativno skopo obdelane tematike, še posebej v slovenskem prostoru. Iz redkih virov, ki se te materije večinoma le fragmentarno dotikajo, se težko znajdejo celo pravniki, kaj šele pravne sistematike nevajeni arhitekti. Prav slednji pa so tisti, ki jih dokaj nejasna ureditev avtorskih zaščit arhitekturnih del najbolj prizadene.

Morda se bomo iz članka kaj naučili, tudi arhitekti.

Docent Peter Marolt spet razpleta problematiko daljnega vzhoda. Naslov članka je SINERGIJA MISLI, SLIKARSTVA IN OBLIKOVANJA PROSTORA NA DALJNEM VZHODU. Pravi, da je predmet preučevanja tisti del likovnega sveta v povezavi z oblikovanjem prostora Daljnega vzhoda, kjer gre za poudarjeno prepletanje in prehajanje med posameznimi umetniškimi zvrstmi ali načini izraza, ki imajo vsaj eno skupno točko in ta je, da je tovrstno ustvarjalno delovanje posledica ponotranjenega načina življenja in spoštovanja (moči) narave.

Kolikor je v tem uspel, presodite sami.

Docentka dr Jasna Hrovatin je ob devetdesetletnici profesorja Nika Kralja napisala knjigo o njem. Kot poklon profesorju in njegovi visoki obletnici objavljamo kratko osvetlitev njegovega dela.

V tokratni številki je tudi nekrolog žal prezgodaj umrlega kolega, profesorja Vojteha Ravnikarja, ki ga je pripravil njegov kolega Jurij Kobe.

Profesor Mario Perossa je s kolegom Igorjem Franičem dobil najvišje hrvaško priznanje Viktor Kovačič, za 'najuspešnejše arhitektonsko stvaritev v letu 2o1o'. Vesel bi bil, če bi bilo takih objav še več. Čestitam.

Revija AR Arhitektura raziskave / Architecture Research je od 2o1o dosegljiva tudi digitalno na DLib, kar ji širi bralstvo in predvsem dosegljivost na spletu. Kolegu docentu Domnu Zupančiču pa gre zahvala, da je uspel uvrstiti revijo tudi na Archnet, ki na spletu teče v okviru prestižne ameriške univerze MIT, Massachussets Institute of Technology. Tudi to je dosežek. Vseh nas.

Editorial

Considering current technical and, especially, financial issues, I am glad this number is before you. There are quite a few successes to be mentioned, achieved both by the editorial board and the Faculty of Architecture. But we will return to this later. Let me begin with the current publication, which is an exceptionally varied issue.

Our colleague Dr Igor Toš lays out the problems he has been dealing with, and which are highly significant, in fact, but so little known and appreciated; although they involve experts such as Nold Egenter (who gave lectures at several ALPE ADRIA congresses in Slovenia and also contributed to AR), Amos Rapaport, Paul Oliver from Oxford (who is also familiar with Slovenia because of the ALPE ADRIA congresses on vernacular architecture, as well as visits by Oxford University post-graduate students), and Professor Christian Lassure, as the representative of CERAV in Paris. Problems regarding his area of research are addressed by Dr Toš in the article titled ANTHROPOLOGY AND VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE AS SOURCES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ANTHROPOGENIC ENVIRONMENT. The article looks into the actual structure of anthropology, and the as yet insufficient development of the area of the subject which deals with the relationship between people and the environment (particularly anthropogenic and spatial material). The article presents the disciplines of architectural and urban anthropology. It also analyses the significance of investigating vernacular architecture, which is the right theme for the opening article.

Architect and painter Dr Beatriz Tomšič Čerkez from South America - but in terms of culture also involved in Balkan environments - contributes a number of interesting ideas to the reflection on identity. The article, ARCHITECTURE BETWEEN BUILDING AND DESTROYING IDENTITY, opens a debate on the links between identity, tradition, and architectural heritage, and the meaning of specific interventions in space, in order to understand which of these connections has the key role. In terms of theory, the debate arises from relationships between nations, nationalities and religious affiliations, but in practice it shows the problem by means of the examples of post-war reconstruction in the town of Stolac in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

A professor of architecture from Sarajevo, Dr Vjekoslava Sanković Simčić, describes concrete examples of architectural interventions realised over the last few years. She bravely takes a professional stand in estimating the results of architecture in Bosnia and Herzegovina in her article INTEGRATING THE OLD AND NEW, in which she develops the idea that the integration of the old and new may be amply applied in the process of protecting and revitalising cultural heritage. She claims that the issue is as complex as the process of preservation and active protection itself. In the process of implementation, the axioms and tenets of the discipline of restoration need to be observed. In cases when conservation and restoration work aimed at re-establishing the integrity of authentic values cannot be carried out, a fresh intervention must reflect contemporary technical and technological achievements and means of expression. I repeat once again that the greatest value of this article lies in the brave stand on the profession, and in the person viewing issues of the space with a critical eye.

Professors Martina Zbašnik-Senegačnik, an architect at our school, and Andrej Senegačnik, a mechanical engineer at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the University of Ljubljana, together evaluate the fashionable energy-saving construction highly praised in the media. Taking a scholarly approach, with data and examples, they demonstrate that passive houses are a matter of modernity, not a matter of fashionable style. Cheap publicity and advertising in the media unduly blur this fact. This serious piece is appearing at the right moment, and its title is short: THE ADVANTAGES OF PASSIVE HOUSES. These are currently optimum energy-saving buildings. Because of quality thermal cladding, adequate air-tightness and a built-in controlled ventilation system recovering the heat from waste air, its annual heating energy demand amounts to a maximum of 15 kWh/(m2a), which can be met by so-called warm air heating. Passive houses have numerous advantages over the structures in which we live today and built yesterday.

A professor from Austria, Dr Alexander G. Keul, analyses the use of passive houses in a contribution entitled POST-OCCUPANCY EVALUATION (POE) OF EIGHT MULTI-STOREY AUSTRIAN PASSIVE HOUSING PROPERTIES. He primarily describes the results of questionaires completed by people who live in such buildings. Satisfaction grows over time: it demonstrates the real value of this system. He claims that because of the shift in climate conditions, sustainable housing construction will not only be on the professional and architectural agenda, but primarily the political. The key issue regarding the implementation of sustainable building concepts such as passive housing (PH) is their acceptance by users. Post-occupancy evaluation (POE), a research technique of Social Design, provides representative user opinions about housing innovations. Given that in the neighbouring country this type of construction has been under way for some time, the results are of interest to us, too.

Within the framework of her doctoral study at our faculty, a young researcher, Larisa Brojan, found an interesting and challenging theme: straw. In the article ECOLOGICAL AND ENERGY SAVING STRAW-BALE HOUSES she presents a theme which is not especially new, but points to quite a few interesting cues which might prompt the profitable use of this material in the architecture of tomorrow. Straw-bale construction acquires new dimensions at a time when environment friendly building is being emphasised. For a long time it has been popular only within a circle of people who wished to build and live in harmony with nature, but ever more frequently we may come upon modern concepts of construction which envisage the use of straw-bales as an ordinary type of construction. Comparing the energy requirements for manufacturing various building materials reveals that energy consumption in the manufacture of straw-bales is extremely low, which means that their use in construction results in a minimum carbon and ecological footprint. Rather than emitting carbon, straw acts as a carbon sink. After a practical presentation and evidence supported by figures, there will be an even more interesting follow-up to the article in the future.

Assistant Professor Dr Biljana Arandjelović and architect Ana Momčilović-Petronijević are from Serbia, where they reveal the sad remnants of vernacular architecture which are still alive. In the article WATER MILL ARCHITECTURE IN THE SOUTH OF SERBIA they report on a string of structures they discovered that feature exceptionally interesting technical solutions. Vertical wheel water mills are almost non-existent in Europe - it is all a matter of conditions: relatively little water falling from a height. This system yields exceptionally simple solutions, as no transmission of rotating elements is needed, nor the transmission of rotating speeds in many cases. An especially interesting solution in terms of property is the »collective ownership of structures«, which is otherwise known in urbanised systems, but in vernacular architecture it appears only in the most endangered surroundings (for example, in the Alps). According to medieval historical sources, apart from monastery or church water mills, mills belonged to entire villages or village districts. In the near past, there were still found favourable river locations for water mills. In the period towards the end of Turkish rule and between the two world wars the population in the villages grew. Because of greater needs, most water mills were erected during this period, and they are now more or less in a state of decay.

It appears that these problems are very much like ours: and architects and schools of architecture are entitled to set up systems for taking stock, documenting, analysing, safeguarding, renovating and rehabilitating, given that the government services reponsible for safeguarding cultural heritage, which includes the architectural heritage, do not deliver results. I hope that with our combined forces (global scientific and professional organisations such as ICOMOS, European Union, Slovenia and Serbia) we may achieve something also in Serbia. In Slovenia, we have had quite a few experiences and results in this area.

As a young lawyer, immediately after receiving her degree, Saša Krajnc embarked on interesting problems to which we architects pay too little attention: COPYRIGHT AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR PROTECTING ARCHITECTURAL WORKS. The copyright protection of architectural works is an issue that is discussed somewhat rarely, especially in Slovenia. The rare sources - which largely touch only in a partial way on this matter - are difficult to manage even for lawyers, let alone architects lacking legal training - precisely the people most affected by the unclear regulations on protecting the copyright on architectural works.

Architects may also learn something from this article.

Assistant Professor Peter Marolt again deals with themes from the Far East. The title of the article is THE SYNERGY OF MIND, PAINTING AND SPATIAL DESIGN IN THE FAR EAST. He says that the subject of the study is that portion of the fine arts connected with spatial design in the Far East, where there is a pronounced inter-twining and movement between individual types of art or styles of expression which have at least one point in common: artistic activity results from an interiorised way of life and respect for (the power of) nature.

The degree of his succes is for you to judge.

Assistant Professor Dr Jasna Hrovatin has written a book about Professor Niko Kralj to mark his ninetieth birthday. As an hommage to the professor and his distinguished anniversary, we publish a brief presentation of his work. Sincere congratulations to Professor Kralj from the Editorial Board and all the collaborators of AR magazine: for all his professional work and teaching, and for his jubilee.

Unfortunately, the present issue also contains an obituary by Assistant Professor Jurij Kobe for Professor Vojteh Ravnikar, who died too young.

Professor Mario Perossa - together with colleague Igor Franič - was granted the highest Croatian award - the Viktor Kovačić Award - for »the most succesful architectural creation in the year 2010«. I would be glad if there were more such notices. Congratulations.

The magazine AR Arhitektura raziskave/Architecture Research has been available in digital form since 2010 at Dlib, which is expanding its readership and, above all, its availibity on the Net.

Thanks to Assistant Professor Domen Zupančič the magazine is also available at Archnet, which is part of the Net presence of the reputed American university M.I.T., the Massachussets Institute of Technology. This, too, is an achievement. Of all of us.

1. Uvodna stran / Introduction

2. Uredništvo e - obrazci / Editing and e-forms

3. Zadnja številka / Recent magazine

4. Arhiv revij / Archive

5. Naročanje / Ordering

 

Vsebina / Contents

Uvodnik / Editorial
Poklon / Tribute to
V spomin / In memoriam

Članki / Articles

Igor Toš
Antropologija in vernakularno kot izvora razumevanja antropogenega okolja
Anthropology and Vernacular Architecture as Sources for Understanding the Anthropogenic Environment

Beatriz Tomšič Čerkez
Arhitektura med gradnjo in rušenjem identitete
Architecture Between Building and Destroying Identity

Vjekoslava Sanković Simčić
Integracija staro-novo
Integrating the Old and New

Martina Zbašnik-Senegačnik, Andrej Senegačnik
Prednosti pasivne hiše
The Advantages of Passive Houses

Alexander G. Keul
Vrednotenje večnadstropnih avstrijskih pasivnih stanovanjskih zgradb po vselitvi
Post-occupancy Evaluation of Multistorey Austrian Passive Housing Properties

Larisa Brojan
Ekološke in energijsko varčne hiše iz slamnatih bal
Ecological and Energy Saving Straw-bale Houses

Biljana Arandjelović, Ana Momčilović-Petronijević
Arhitektura vodnih mlinov v južni Srbiji
The Water Mills Architecture in the South of Serbia

Saša Krajnc
Avtorska pravica kot instrument zaščite arhitekturnih del
Copyright as an Instrument of Protection of Architectural Works

Peter Marolt
Sinergija misli, slikarstva in oblikovanja prostora na daljnem vzhodu
The Synergy of Mind, Painting and Spatial Design in the Far East