AR 2009/2, Letnik X
Uvodnik

Tokratna tematska številka nosi delovni naslov 'Začetki', saj prinaša večino prispevkov mladih kolegov, predvsem doktorantov. Ti imajo ob svojem tekstu še kratek izsek iz recenzij, pri čemer je recenzent podpisan. Tematika je široka in največji problem je bil najti recenzenta. Dva ugledna profesorja naše šole razgrinjata problematiko, vsak s svojega gledišča in s svoje stroke. Posebej pa me veseli, da smo uspeli vzpostaviti stik s politiko, ki usklajuje potrebe, možnosti z zmožnostmi: usklajuje torej interese. Za arhitekturo in za strokovnjake v njej je posebej pomembno sodelovanje med zakonodajalcem, urejevalcem in izvajalcem oblikovanja okolja. Vloga arhitekta je pri tem ključna. Taka je včasih bila in postaja vse pomembnejša. Žal pa vse preveč realizacij kaže na neusklajenost, ki je plod posamičnih interesov, izkoriščanja trenutnih okoliščin, pa tudi neznanja ali nezainteresiranosti.

 

Zato si štejemo v čast, da so na Direktoratu za prostor Ministrstva za okolje in prostor pripravili pregled problematike s pomenljivim naslovom Od strategije do konkretnega. Doktor Mitja Pavliha je strnil razmišljanja različnih služb v problemsko celoto, ki bo zanimala slehernega arhitekta. Problem je v usklajenosti ciljev razvojnih politik že v najzgodnejši fazi. Strateško planiranje zagotavlja pravočasno soočanje razvojnih vprašanj z varstvenimi, pa tudi razvojnimi vprašanji. Prostor je namreč omejena dobrina in nemalokrat se razvojni cilji med seboj izključujejo. To je pomembno že v fazi oblikovanja javnih politik, oblikovanja zakonodaje in drugih instrumentov za izvajanje, posebej na nacionalni, regionalni, lokalni, mednarodni in evropski ravni. Tako so razvojne strategije pomembno vodilo, ki usmerja izvajanje celotnih politik. Kolegice na ministrstvu so to opravile korektno in le upam lahko, da se na straneh AR še kdaj srečamo.

 

Profesor Peter Fister v članku KONSERVATORSKI NAČRT ZA PRENOVO KOT SESTAVINA PROSTORSKEGA NAČRTOVANJA razglablja o problematiki dediščine v arhitekturi. Osnova prostoru, v katerem človek načrtuje in gradi svoje bivalno okolje, je bila vedno naravna dediščina, ki je lahko le skupaj z ustvarjeno dediščino predstavljala javno dobrino, obenem pa enega od vzorcev neuresničenih možnosti in hkrati največjo neznanko kako to razumeti in uveljaviti v okviru trajnostnega razvoja prostora. Različne stroke, politika, lastniki in javnost v različnih časih uporabljajo različne kriterije za vrednotenje zgodovinske vrednosti kulturne dediščine, ki naj bi imeli posebno vrednost ne le danes ampak tudi v prihodnosti. Visoka stopnja ohranjenosti kulturne krajine in identitete najpomembnejših naselij ter značilne arhitekture bo v bodoče zahtevala posebno pazljivost pri vseh posegih v prostor in njegovo rabo.

 

Profesor Janez Kresal govori v prispevku VLOGA IN POMEN ARHITEKTURNE TEHNOLOGIJE o snovnih sestavinah arhitekturnega jezika. To je arhitekturni člen. Analizira štiri osnovne sestavine arhitekturnega člena (gradivo, oblika, funkcija, tehnologija) in njihove medsebojne vplivne povezave oziroma sovisnosti. Začetno tezo, da so vse štiri sestavine med seboj enakovredno povezane, preoblikuje v shemo, ki vključuje dva razvojna scenarija in kaže, da je agens napredka izmenično v snovnem in abstraktnem polju. Oba elementa lahko nastopata tudi posamično. Pri tem je najpomembnejša prav arhitekturna tehnologija.

 

Mladi doktor Matevž Juvančič razvija teorijo metodologije, ki določajo prakso v prispevku NAPREDNI PRIPOMOČKI V ARHITEKTURI IN URBANIZMU. Ti pripomočki v arhitekturi, tako analogni kot digitalni, prežemajo vse faze načrtovanja. Že včasih so predstavljali pomemben načrtovanja, z digitalizacijo pa se je potreba po njih še povečala. Članek govori o naprednih pripomočkih v arhitekturi in urbanizmu, ki v praksi pogosto ostajajo spregledani in neuporabljeni.

 

Mlada raziskovalka Anja Jutraž predstavlja v članku BIVALNI PROSTOR V BLIŽINI MESTNEGA SREDIŠČA temo preobrazbe izpraznjenih industrijskih območij blizu historičnih mestnih središč v boljše bivalno okolje sodobne družbe. Prvi problem pri preobrazbi industrijskih območij se pojavi ob iskanju načina kako urejati in oblikovati ta prostor, kako vključevati različne akterje v proces načrtovanja ter kdaj, kje in kako vključiti javnost v proces urejanja prostora. Ugotavlja kaj so tiste lastnosti, ki tvorijo kvalitetnejše in prijetnejše bivalno okolje za uporabnika.

 

Študentka na doktorskem študiju Špela Verovšek in prof. Tadeja Zupančič predstavljata v prispevku SODELOVANJE ARHITEKTURNE IN SPLOŠNE JAVNOSTI izbrane vsebine, ki se prepletajo pri reševanju problematike sodelovanja javnosti v postopkih arhitekturno-urbanističnega odločanja. Opredeljujeta vlogo elementov poseganja v prostor, ki so pomembni pri oblikovanju pogojev za sodelovanje javnosti. Celotna diskusija uokvirja razmislek o komunikacijski vrzeli v odnosu med strokovno in splošno javnostjo, sprašujeta se o pomenu in razširjanju strokovnih znanj javnosti.

 

Študentsko delo dodiplomskega študija vnaša mlada kolegica Irena Pangeršič v članek DEGRADACIJA UDIN BORŠTA, NAJVEČJEGA OSAMELEGA KRASA V SLOVENIJI nove podatke, razmišljanje in predstavitev izjemno pomembne problematike za varovanje okolja. Udin boršt je namreč zakrasela konglomeratasta terasa nad Naklim, severozahodno od Kranja, ki jo postavljajo v najstarejši pleistocen. Naravno zaščito in oskrbo so uporabniki našli v jamah Udin boršta ter v vodnih izvirih. Zaščito, varnost in vir preživetja jim je nudilo tudi večje jezero, katerega klisura ni vidna le na Franciscejskemu katastru, ampak v prostoru to vidimo tudi danes. Obrambni vodni jarki so vidni na kraju, kjer je nekoč stal Beli grad na Štuclju – imenovan "Pusti grad".

 

Kolegica Barbara Baraga predstavlja v članku Slovenska arhitekturna grajska dediščina stanje arhitekturne grajske dediščine kot nezavidljivo. Z izjemo nekaterih najbolj reprezentativnih objektov propada.

 

Mladi kolega Martin Kavčič predstavlja Bogoslužne stavbe na Slovenskem po drugi svetovni vojni. Izgradnja bogoslužnih stavb do zdaj ni bila pregledno in strokovno obravnavana. Posamične predstavitve in ocene so razpršene po monografijah, v posamičnih raziskavah, omejenih na izbrane krajevne enote Slovenije. Zato je toliko pomembnejše zbiranje podatkov z enako metodologijo, ki omogoča tako kvantitativno kot kvalitativno oceno zgrajenega.

 

Nekoliko drugačna obravnava problematike bivanja je delo študentke doktorskega študija Mete Kutin in članek KAKOVOST BIVANJA IN NJENA DINAMIKA RASTI govori o kakovosti življenja, ki prihaja v današnjih družbenih razmerah vse bolj v ospredje.

 

Kolegica Katja Malovrh Rebec razmišlja v članku DVOSLOJNE STEKLENE FASADE S SENČILI V MEDPROSTORU zmanjšanju rabe energije. Kljub velikemu številu raziskav, ki so preučevale delovanje, dokaza za energijsko učinkovitost še ni. Ker so DSF kompleksne, je za modeliranje potrebna poenostavitev, ki pripeljejo tudi do vprašljivih zaključkov. Senčila, nujna za zaščito pred pregrevanjem, modeliranje še dodatno zapletejo. Običajno so sistemi za senčenje vgrajeni v medprostor DSF, ki na ta način postane razdeljen na dva dela. To predstavlja s stališča snovanja poseben problem.

 

Študentka doktorskega študija Larisa Brojan razmišlja v prispevku s preprostim naslovom Opeka in njena problematika o materialu z večtisočletno tradicijo. Najpogosteje se jo uporablja pri gradnji kot osnovni konstrukcijski material, včasih tudi za tlakovanje ali za izgradnjo opečante fasade. Prve opeke so bile gnetene in oblikovane z rokami ter sušene na soncu, kasneje pečene na ognju in potem v pečeh. Proces izdelave opeke z vsemi tehnološkimi izboljšavami je skoraj v celoti razbremenil človeka, saj so prav vse faze procesa opravljene s pomočjo mehanizacije. S tem se je močno povečala proizvodnja, posledično pa tudi poraba energije in obremenitev okolja.

 

Prispevek iz prakse Martine Lipnik govori o Interpretaciji možnega, smiselnega in realnega v vsakodnevni praksi lociranja objektov v prostor in realizaciji gradnje, kjer  prihaja do problematičnih, vprašljivih in celo škodljivih primerov dovoljenih gradenj. Vplivi na okolje so namreč neločljivo vezani na prostor, v večji ali manjši meri pa grajeni objekti s svojo funkcijo, pojavnostjo in zasedbo naravnega ali ustvarjenega prostora vplivajo na okolico in na okolje, v okviru evropske zakonodaje – od varstva kulturne dediščine do vpliva na življenjske razmere.

 

Študentka Kateřina Nesládková predstavlja Praški grad in južne vrtove. Razlaga, da sega razvoj gradu v Pragi po dosegljivih virih v leto 880. Prostor današnjih vrtov je bil vse do srednjega veka odprt, javni prostor, ki so ga uporabljali tudi kot odlagališče odpadkov gradu samega. Za nas so vrtovi pomembni, ker je predsednik Masaryk zaupal dela pri ureditvi arhitektu Plečniku.

 

Argentinska Slovenka, arhitektka in akademska slikarka, docentka na Pedagoški fakulteti Beatriz Tomšič Čerkez se je do zdaj predstavljala v AR  z znanstvenimi članki. Danes jo prikazuje Črtomir Frelih kot slikarko. Konec leta 2oo9 je imela kolegica v Ljubljani zanimivo razstavo z naslovom SLEDI V ZRAKU, na kateri je profesor PeF razčlenil njeno delo, možnosti slikarskih tehnik in analiziral izpovednost slikarskega dela. Objavljamo nagovor, ki bo zanimiv tudi za arhitekta. Sam sem mu z zanimanjem prisluhnil.

 

Tokrat je pred vami dokaj pomlajena številka AR. Prepričan sem, da boste našli tudi kaj zase.

 

 

Urednik

 

Editorial

The present thematic issue carries the working title ‘Beginnings’ because most of the contributions are from our younger colleagues, especially from doctoral students. Their texts are accompanied by short passages from reviews which carry the reviewers' signatures. The theme is a broad one, and finding reviewers was the greatest problem. Two eminent professors from our school present the issues, each from their own perspective and profession. I am particularly delighted that we succeeded in establishing contact with politics, which harmonises needs and possibilities with capabilities: that is, it harmonises interests. For architecture, and its professionals, it is of particular importance to collaborate with legislators, arrangers and implementers of environmental design. The architect's role is vital in this process. This used to be the case, and it is gaining in importance. Unfortunately, too many realisations give evidence of the mismatching that stems from individual interests and opportunism, and also from ignorance or lack of interest.

 

Therefore we consider it an honour that the Spatial Planning Directorate of the Ministry of the Environment and Spatial Planning has prepared a review of issues with the meaningful title FROM STRATEGY TO CONCRETENESS. Dr. Mitja Pavliha takes wholistic approach to the ideas from various agencies, which will interest every architect. The problem lies in the harmonisation of goals at the earliest stages. Strategic planning ensures the timely confrontation of development issues with those of conservation, but also with development issues themselves. Space is a finite good, and development goals are quite often mutually exclusive. This fact is already important in the stage of shaping public policies, legislation and other implementation instruments, particularly at the national, regional, local and European levels. Thus, development strategies are significant guidelines directing the implementation of entire policies.

 

Professor Janez Kresal, in his contribution THE ROLE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY, deals with the material elements of the language of architecture - that is to say, with the architectural element. He analyses four constitutive components of the architectural element (material, form, function, technology) and their mutual connections in terms of their influence and interdependence. The opening thesis - that all four elements are equally interconnected - is re-formulated into a scheme which includes two development scenarios, indicating that the development agent is to be found alternatively in the material and/or abstract field. Both elements may also act individually. In all this, architectural technology is the most significant.

 

 

Professor Peter Fister in his article THE CONSERVATION PLAN FOR RENOVATION AS A COMPONENT OF SPATIAL PLANNING considers the issue of heritage in architecture. The foundation of spaces where people plan and build their living environments has always been the natural heritage, which, only together with cultural heritage, constitutes a public good. At the same time, natural heritage represents one of the patterns of unrealised possibilities and the greatest unknown in terms of understanding and affirmation within the framework of the sustainable development of space. Various professions, politicians, owners and the public have at different times used different criteria to determine the historical value of cultural heritage, as well as newly created cultural and artistic achievements supposedly having a special value not only in the present, but also in the future. A high degree of conservation of the cultural landscape and the identity of major settlements and characteristic architecture will require particular care regarding interventions in, and the use of, space.

 

In his contribution ADVANCED INSTRUMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM, Dr. Matevž Juvančič develops a theory of methodology for determining practice. In architecture, these instruments (analogue as well as digital) permeate all the stages of architectural design. They have always played a significant part in the design process, and the digitalisation of the profession has augmented the need for them. The contribution deals with advanced and accessible instruments in architecture and urbanism which are often overlooked and not used in practice.

 

Trainee researcher Anja Jutraž in her article LIVING SPACE NEAR THE CITY CENTRE presents the issue of transforming abandoned industrial areas in the vicinity of historical town centres into quality living environments for contemporary society. The first issue arising from the transformation of industrial areas is how to address the arrangement and design of such spaces, how to integrate various actors into the planning process, and when, where and how to include the public in the process of a wider spatial arrangement. She discovers which features create a quality living environment that is pleasant for the user.

 

In their contribution COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE ARCHITECTURAL AND THE GENERAL PUBLIC a doctoral student Špela Verovšek and Professor Tadeja Zupančič present selected issues interwoven in resolving matters of public participation in processes of architectural and urban planning decision making. They identify the role of elements of the decision-making process concerning spatial interventions, which are relevant for determining the conditions for creative public participation. The discussion is a framework for reflections on the communication gap between the expert and the general public. They inquire into the meaning and distribution of expert knowledge for the general public.

 

Our young colleague Irena Pangeršič uses her graduate study work as the basis for the article DEGRADATION OF UDINBORŠT, THE LARGEST ISOLATED KARST IN SLOVENIA, in which she presents new data and considerations, and an issue that is extremely significant for the preservation of the environment.

Udin boršt is a conglomerate terrace with Karst-like features lying above Naklo, to the northwest of Kranj, which dates from the earliest Pleistocene. The inhabitants found natural protection and supplies in the caves of Udin boršt, and water sources in the surroundings. A large lake also provided protection, security and livelihood; the gorge is not only shown in the Austrian Emperor Franz I's land register, but is visible to the present day. The ramparts and defensive moats are still visible at the site where at Štucelj Beli grad – also called ‘Pusti grad’ - once stood. 

 

Our colleague Barbara Baraga in her article SLOVENE ARCHITECTURAL CASTLE HERITAGE depicts the current state of our castle heritage as unenviable. With the exception of some of the most representative structures, most of the stock is in decay.

 

The young colleague Martin Kavčič presents BUILDINGS OF WORSHIP IN SLOVENIA AFTER WORLD WAR II. The construction of buildings of worship has so far not been treated in a professional and comprehensive way. The information is scattered in the form of monographic presentations of some realisations and individual studies confined to selected localities in Slovenia. Therefore it is important to collect the data by using a single methodology enabling both a quantitative and qualitative estimate of the buildings.

 

 

Another kind of treatment of the quality of life can be found in the work of doctoral student Meta Kutin. Her article QUALITY OF LIFE AND ITS DYNAMICS discusses the quality of life, increasingly brought to the forefront in today's social conditions.

 

Colleague Katja Malovrh Rebec in her article DOUBLE-SKIN FAÇADES WITH INTERNAL BLINDS considers the reduction of energy consumption. Despite a large number of studies of performance, there is no decisive proof as to the true energy efficiency of DSFs. As DSFs are extremely complex, any modelling requires a certain degree of simplification, which can easily lead to erroneous conclusions. Blinds, which provide necessary protection against excessive heating, additionally complicate modelling. Shading systems are frequently situated in the cavity lying between the two glazing systems, thereby dividing DSFs into two parts. The latter represents a new challenge from the viewpoint of designing a model.

 

Doctoral student Larisa Brojan in the contribution entitled simply BRICK AND ITS PROBLEMS discusses the material with millennia of tradition. It has most frequently been used as a basic construction material, and sometimes also for paving or constructing brick elevations. Initially, bricks were shaped by hand and dried in the sun. Later, they were heated over fire, and later still, in kilns. Over time, the process of brick-making developed through the introduction of numerous technological improvements, so that human participation became almost unnecessary, as all phases of the process are automated. Thus, production greatly increased, and consequently, energy consumption and the burden on the environment.

 

A contribution from the practice of Martina Lipnik addresses INTERPRETATIONS OF THE POSSIBLE, REASONABLE AND REALISTIC in the day-to-day practice of locating structures in space and the realisation of construction projects when there are numerous cases of building permits being issued for problematic, questionable and even damaging construction projects. Environmental effects are inextricably linked with any intervention in space. To a greater or lesser degree, built structures have an impact on their surroundings and environment through their function, appearance and the occupation of natural or created space.  The European legislation – from the safeguarding of cultural heritage to the impact on the conditions of life – should constitute the framework for locating structures in space.

 

Kateřina Nesládková, a student, presents PRAGUE CASTLE - SOUTHERN GARDENS. She explains that, according to the available sources, Prague Castle was founded around the year 880. The area of the current gardens was open fields throughout the Middle Ages, and it served as a rubbish dump for the Castle. For us, the gardens are important because the president Masaryk entrusted their arrangement to the architect Plečnik.

 

A Slovene from Argentina, an architect and  painter, and a teacher at the Faculty of Education, Beatriz Tomšič Čerkez, has so far been present in AR with scholarly articles. Now, Črtomir Frelih, professor at the same faculty, presents her as an artist. At the end of 2009, Mrs. Čerkez had an exhibition in Ljubljana with the title TRACES IN THE AIR, on which occasion Professor Frelih analysed her work, the possibilities of painting techniques and the narrative quality of an art work. We publish Frelih’s opening speech, which architects will also find interesting. I personally listened with interest.

 

You will find that AR has been rejuvenated. I am confident you will also find something for yourself in it too.

 

Editor

1. Uvodna stran / Introduction

2. Uredništvo e - obrazci / Editing and e-forms

3. Zadnja številka / Recent magazine

4. Arhiv revij / Archive

5. Naročanje / Ordering

 

Vsebina / Contents

Uvodnik / Editorial

 

V spomin / In memoriam

 

Članki / Articles

Mitja Pavliha, Direktorat za prostor RS MOP

OD STRATEGIJE DO KONKRETNEGA

FROM STRATEGY TO CONCRETENESS

Janez Kresal

VLOGA IN POMEN ARHITEKTURNE TEHNOLOGIJE

THE ROLE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF ARCHITECTURAL TECHNOLOGY

Peter Fister

KONSER VAT ORSKI NAČRT ZAPRENOVO KOT SESTAVINA PROSTORSKEGA NA ČRTOVANJA

CONSERVATION PLAN FOR RENOVATION AS A COMPONENT OF SPATIAL PLANNING

Matevž Juvančič

NA PREDNI PRIPOMOČKI VARHITEKTURI IN URBANIZMU

ADVANCED INSTRUMENTS IN ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM

Anja Jutraž

BIVALNI PROST OR V BLIŽINI MESTNEGA SREDIŠČA

LIVING SPACE NEAR THE CITY CENTRE

Špela Verovšek, Tadeja Zupančič

SODE LOVANJE ARHITEKTURNE IN SPLOŠNE JAVNOSTI

TOWARDS PRESENTATION TECHNIQUES FOR THE GENERAL PUBLIC

Irena Pangeršič

DEGRADA CIJA UDIN BORŠTA, NAJ VEČJEGA OSAMELEGAKRASA V SLOVENIJI

DEGRADATION OF UDIN BORŠT, THE LARGEST ISOLATED KARST IN SLOVENIA

Barbara Baraga

SLOVENSKA ARHITEKTURNA GRAJSKA DEDIŠČINA

SLOVENE ARCHITECTURAL CASTLE HERITAGE

Martin Kavčič

BOGOSLUŽNE STAVBE NA SLOVENSKEM PO DRUGI SVETOV NI VOJNI

BUILDINGS OF WORSHIP IN SLOVENIA AFTER WORLD WAR II

Meta Kutin

KAKOVO STBIVANJA IN NJENA DINAMIKA RASTI

QUALITY OF LIFE AND ITS GROWTH DYNAMICS

Katja Malovrh Rebec

DVOSLOJNE STEK LENE FASADE S SENČILI V MEDPROSTORU

DOUBLE SKIN GLASS FACADES WITH SHADING SYSTEM

Larisa Brojan

OPEKA IN NJENA PROBLEMATIKA

BRICK AND ITS PROBLEMS

Martina Lipnik

INTERPRETACIJE MOŽ NEGA, SMISELNEGA IN REALNEGA

INTERPRETATIONS OF THE POSSIBLE, REASONABLE AND REALISTIC

Kateřina Nesládková

PRAG UE CAST LE – SOUTHERN GARDENS

PRAŠKI GRAD – JUŽNI VRTOVI

Črtomir Frelih

SLEDI V ZRAK U