AR 2009/1, Letnik X
Uvodnik

Že kar nekaj časa se nismo brali: toliko je dela in vse manj časa... Medtem smo dobili nekaj novih sodelavcev, s pisci iz prejšnjih številk smo razvili sodelovanja na meddržavnih projektih, pojavljajo se mladi, perspektivni strokovnjaki, ki razvijajo nova, še ne prav znana področja. Ampak ti bodo prišli na vrsto v naslednji številki AR.

Naj začnem s predstavitvijo člankov v tej številki.

Valon Gërmizaj je mladi kolega s Kosova, ki ga je pripeljal dr Uroš Lipušček, rektor ene tamkajšnjih univerz. V članku POGLEDI NA DEKONSTRUKTIVNO ARHITEKTURO razmišlja o vzrokih za težavnost njene opredelitve, ki se nahaja v zgradbah, ki jih je ustvarila v preteklosti. Medtem ko klasična arhitektura slavi človekovo ustvarjalno ročnost, modernistična arhitektura pohvalo namenja strojni tehnologiji; vsaka od njiju je imela podoben in ponavljajoč se jezik estetike, ki je bil prisoten v vsej sočasni arhitekturi. V dekonstruktivni arhitekturi ni te podobnosti, vsaj kar zadeva estetiko. In prav zaradi odsotnosti vidnega skupnega arhitekturnega jezika pričujoča študija poskuša ugotoviti kako kolega gleda nanjo, kaj dekonstruktivna arhitektura predstavlja njemu in okolju, v katerem deluje.

 

Manja Kitek Kuzman in Vladimir Brezar razmišljata o inteligentni prenovi stavbnega fonda in o učinkoviti nadgradnji z uporabo lesa, po načelu "minimalni stroški za stanovalce na račun novo pridobljenih tržnih površin". Obravnavani scenariji nadgradnje in njihovo vrednotenje nas lahko vzpodbudijo k naprednim rešitvam, dobro izvedeni primeri prakse s posredovanjem ugotovitev pa bi služili kot strokovna podlaga. Bomo videli.

 

Aleš Golja, Špela Verovšek in Tadeja Zupančič govorijo o preusmeritvi k ekoturizmu zgornjega Posočja. Problem sta turizem in ekologija, predvsem z vidika ohranjanja avtentičnosti prostora in dinamičnega ravnovesja kulturne trajnosti prostorskega razvoja. To območje sodi med najprivlačnejša območja za preživljanje prostora časa v naravnem okolju Slovenije. Predstavlja pa tudi visoko stopnjo občutljivosti ekosistema, socialnega okolja in arhitekturne dediščine.

 

Alenka Fikfak predstavlja temo, s katero se pač ukvarja: urbanizirano podeželje in manjša neagrarna naselja. Gre za problem, ki se je razvil pri nas po drugi vojni, v zadnjem času pa ob recesiji kaže svoje posledice. Zato je članek prav v tem času še toliko pomembnejši. Gre predvsem za manjša naselja, ki se glede na razvojno usmeritev delijo na agrarna in neagrarna (pretežno urbana) naselja. Med slednja uvrščamo podeželska naselja z mešano dejavnostjo, zaselke, turistična naselja in območja počitniških hiš. To so naselja v urbaniziranem podeželju, ki ležijo v širšem zaledju mest. Po obliki kot tudi po vsebini združujejo vse prednosti bivanja v naravnem okolju z vključevanjem (dopuščanjem) mestnega načina življenja (nova urbana ruralnost). Urbani elementi prevladujejo nad agrarnimi, kljub temu, da je kulturna krajina, katere del so, kmetijsko intenzivno izkoriščana. Pri manjših naseljih je, zaradi tipoloških in ostalih posebnosti, ki so vezane na omejeno število objektov in javnih površin, pomembno urejati posamezne prostorske posege v vzajemnem odnosu s celostno, vizualno in funkcionalno podobo naselja.

 

Gregor Čok odpira manj obdelano področje gospodarske arhitekture ali bolje umeščanje arhitekture v te cone. Kot kaže gre predvsem za ekonomske okvire, v katere pa je treba vgraditi arhitekturo, ki se podreja obema sklopoma zahtev. Kolega govori o fleksibilnosti prostorskih izvedbenih aktov, ki morajo zagotoviti ustrezne fleksibilne načrtovalske pogoje, ki omogočajo čim bolj neovirano umeščanje objektov ob poznanih ali spreminjajočih potrebah poslovanja posameznega gospodarskega akterja. V tem okviru se postavlja vprašanje prevelike ohlapnosti regulativnih instrumentov znotraj obsežnih območij gospodarskih con, kar lahko povzroča tudi neželene učinke v prostoru. Gospodarske cone so s svojim obsegom, vizualnim vplivom robnih fasad in velikim spektrom internih dejavnosti nezanemarljive grajene entitete, ki jih je potrebno na ustrezen način integrirati v dano prostorsko situacijo.

 

Martina Zbašnik Senegačnik in Ljudmila Koprivec uvajata nov termin 'biomimetika'. Gre za biološke sisteme, ki so se razvijali skozi milijone let evolucije na Zemlji in omogočali organizmom, da se oblikujejo, prilagajajo in preživijo in imajo visoko optimirane lastnosti, ki jih danes zahteva sodobni, trajnostni razvoj naše družbe: so energijsko varčni, v ravnotežju z okoljem in morfološko učinkoviti. Podrobno opazovanje naravnih procesov in njihovih lastnosti je sprožilo zanimanje za novo vejo v raziskovanju, ki združuje tako naravoslovne znanosti kot tehnologije XXI. stoletja in zastavlja nove, kontrolirane pristope k oblikovanju prihodnosti: biomimetiko. Biološki vzori so lahko model za imitacijo, kopiranje in učenje ali inspiracija za nove tehnologije. S pomočjo proučevanja bioloških vzorov nastajajo v arhitekturi nove oblike in vzorci ter gradiva. Biomimetična nano gradiva, biomimetične tehnične tekstilije ter biomimetična samozdravilna gradiva s svojimi lastnostmi močno presegajo konvencionalna gradiva in bodo osnova za izzive v arhitekturi prihodnosti. Tako avtorica: v bodočnosti pa bomo še videli.

 

Edo Wallner vstopa v problematiko pasivne hiše kot gradbenik. Zasnova konstrukcije pasivnih hiš je zelo podobna konstrukciji potresno izoliranih hiš. V obeh primerih je konstrukcija objekta izolirana od podlage. Praktično neodvisno od vrste uporabljenega gradiva konstrukcije (glina, opeka, les, beton) so skoraj vse konstrukcije hiš stenskega tipa. To pomeni, da so zelo toge v horizontalni smeri in ob potresu prejmejo znatne obremenitve, ki pa jih lahko učinkovito omejimo z vgradnjo potresne varovalke.

 

Peter Marolt spet razpreda o simboliki daljnega vzhoda, seveda v oblikovanju prostora. Povezuje vzhodne kulture in verovanja ter jih aplicira v oblikovanje prostora, tudi našega. Zanimiva tematika, a za razumevanje našega prostora in naše stroke malce oddaljena.

 

Lara Slivnik zaključuje problematiko umetnostnih paviljonov z zanimivim primerom: z Jakopičevim,  ki je stal v Tivoliju in ki ga tja spet postavljamo. Odpira splošno problematiko paviljonov in odstira nekatere podrobnosti iz zgodovine Jakopičevega v Ljubljani ter končno odpira vprašanje: ali ga, kje ga in zakaj ga sploh rabimo.

 

Predvsem v tej številki se pojavlja kar nekaj člankov s kopico avtorjev. No, ravno to odpira množico problemov ali pomislekov. Kot na začetku študija pri študentih vzpodbujam in zahtevam skupinsko delo - kar je posebej pomembno pri arhitektih, ki smo izrazito introvertirani - je članek formiranega strokovnjaka avtorsko delo. Mentor pri tem usmerja, pomaga, izboljšuje, a avtorsko ne sme posegati v delo. Naloga mentorja je, da mladega strokovnjaka vodi do odgovornosti, ki jo mora nositi sam. Prepričan sem, da mi bodo mladi kolegi pritrdili, pa čeprav s stisnjenimi zobmi: mentorjevo ime v timu zagotavlja prizanesljivejši odnos do članka. Takole - praktično, čeprav teoretično ne bi smelo imeti nobenega vpliva.

In prav zato bo ena naslednjih številk posvečena mladim, ki vstopajo v znanost, katerih članki še ne bodo tako vrhunski, da bi jih prav vsi hvalili. Ampak nekje je treba začeti.

 

Urednik

 

Editorial

It's been some time now since we've been in touch: there is so much to do in less and less time... Meanwhile, we have acquired some new collaborators, developed collaboration on interstate projects with authors from previous numbers, and young prospective experts are emerging, developing fresh and as yet relatively unknown areas. But their turn will come in the next number of AR. Let me present the articles in this number.

 

Valon Gërmizaj is a young colleague from Kosovo introduced by Dr. Uroš Lipušček, the rector of the university there. In his article Views on Deconstructive Architecture, he considers the causes for the uncertainties and confusion surrounding its definition contained in buildings created in the past. While Classical architecture celebrated human craftsmanship, Modernist architecture has done as much for machine technology; each had similar and repeated aesthetic languages which were visible throughout the architecture of its time. This aesthetic resemblance is not present in Deconstructive architecture. Because of the absence of a common visible architectural language, the present study attempts to discover how our colleague sees it, and what Deconstructive architecture means for him and the environment in which he works.

 

Manja Kitek Kuzman and Vladimir Brezar consider the intelligent renovation of the building stock and upgrading activities that make use of wood, in line with the principle of "minimum cost to residents on account of new marketable floor areas". The presented scenarios of building upgrades and their evaluation should encourage us to adopt advanced solutions, while examples of good practice should serve as expert guidelines. We will see.

 

Aleš Golja, Špela Verovšek and Tadeja Zupančič write about the reorientation of the Upper Soča Valley towards ecotourism. The issues discussed are tourism and ecology, primarily in terms of preserving the authenticity of space and dynamic balance of sustainable cultural spatial development. This area is one of the most attractive in Slovenia for leisure in the natural environment. However, from the perspective of the ecosystem, social environment and architectural heritage, it is an area of great vulnerability.

 

Alenka Fikfak discusses urbanised countryside and small non-agrarian settlements. This is a problem which developed after World War II, and it has recently shown its effects along with the recession. This is why this article is so timely. These are small settlements divided according to their development policy into agrarian and non-agrarian (largely urban) settlements. Among the latter, we classify rural settlements of mixed activities, hamlets, tourist resorts and areas of holiday houses. These are settlements in urbanised countryside lying in the wider hinterland of cities. As to their shape and content, they integrate all the advantages of living in a natural environment, including (allowing) the city way of life (new urban rurality). Urban elements prevail over rural, despite the fact that the cultural landscape of which they are part is given over to intensive agricultural exploitation. In the case of small settlements, individual spatial interventions need to be managed in a reciprocal relationship with the comprehensive, visual and functional image of the settlement because of the typological and other particularities attached to a limited number of structures and public spaces.

 

Gregor Čok raises the less discussed subject of industrial architecture or, more precisely, its accommodation into economic zones. It all seems to be a matter of industrial frameworks into which architecture has to be accommodated in compliance with two sets of requirements. The article concerns the flexibility of spatial implementation acts which have to provide for appropriate planning conditions that enable maximally unhindered accommodation of structures, in accordance with the known or changeable operating needs of individual economic actors. In this context, the issue of overly vague regulative instruments within vast areas of economic zones is being posed, as it may also result in undesired effects on space.

Because of their size, the visual impact of their edge facades and a vast array of internal activities, economic zones are not negligible entities and need to be appropriately integrated into a given spatial situation.

 

Martina Zbašnik Senegačnik and Ljudmila Koprivec introduce a new term - 'biomimetics'. This relates to biological systems which have evolved on Earth over millions of years and made it possible for organisms to take their shapes, adapt and survive, and which possess the highly optimised characteristics required today for the contemporary, sustainable development of our society: they are energy-efficient, in balance with the environment and morphologically effective. Detailed observation of natural processes and their properties has triggered an interest in new directions in research, associating natural sciences as well as 21st century technologies, which opens up new, controlled approaches to the shaping of the future: biomimetics. Biological models may be emulated, copied, learnt or taken as starting points for new technologies. Through studies of biological models new forms, patterns and building materials arise in architecture. Because of their properties, biomimetic nanomaterials, biomimetic technical textiles and biomimetic self-curing materials usually outperform conventional materials and constitute future challenges for architecture. This is what the author claims, what the future has in store for us remains to be seen.

 

Edo Wallner tackles the issue of the passive house as a constructor. The design of a passive house is very similar to the design of a seismically isolated building. In both cases the structure of the building is isolated from the foundation. Nearly all buildings are constructed with a solid wall system, regardless of the type of construction material used. This means they are very rigid in the horizontal direction, and when a seismic event occurs, they are subjected to a considerable load which, however, may be efficiently mitigated by the incorporation of an earthquake protector.

 

Peter Marolt again dwells on the symbolism of the Far East, naturally, in the design of space. He links eastern cultures and religions and applies them to the design of space, including ours. An interesting theme, although somewhat foreign to our space and profession.

 

Lara Slivnik wraps up the issue of art pavilions with an interesting example: the Jakopič Pavilion, which stood in Tivoli Park in Ljubljana, exactly where it is about to be reconstructed. She discusses pavilions in general, and reveals some details from the history of the Jakopič Pavilion; finally, she raises the question of where, why and whether we need it at all.

 

There are quite a few articles in this number with multiple authors.This raises numerous problems or concerns. At the begining of their course, I encourage and require team work from students – which is particularly important for architects who are highly introverted – but an article by an accomplished expert is an authorial work. A mentor may direct, help, improve, but must not interfere with the work as author. The mentor's task is to lead a young expert towards responsibility, which has to be borne by him or her alone. I am confident that my young colleagues will agree, although through gritted teeth, that the use of a mentor's name ensures more respect for an article - although theoretically, it should not have any influence whatsoever.

For this reason, an ensuing issue will be dedicated to the young who are entering the profession, and whose articles might not yet be so excellent as to receive universal praise. But we all have to start somewhere.

 

Editor
1. Uvodna stran / Introduction

2. Uredništvo e - obrazci / Editing and e-forms

3. Zadnja številka / Recent magazine

4. Arhiv revij / Archive

5. Naročanje / Ordering

 

Vsebina / Contents

Uvodnik / Editorial

 

Članki / Articles

Valon Gërmizaj

Reflections on Deconstructive Architecture

Pogledi na dekonstruktivno arhitekturo

Manja Kitek Kuzman, Vladimir Brezar

Model tipolške analize lesene nadgradnje

Typological analysis adding a new storey by using wood

Aleš Golja, Špela Verovšek, Tadeja Zupančič

Preusmeritev k ekoturizmu Zgornjega Posočja

Towards ecotourism of Zgornje Posočje

Alenka Fikfak

Urbanizirano podeželje – manjša neagrarna naselja

Urbanised countr yside – small non –agrarian settlements

Gregor Čok

Načrtovanje objektov v okviru gospodarskih con

Flexibility of spatial implementation acts

Martina Zbašnik-Senegačnik, Ljudmila Koprivec

Biomimetika v arhitekturi prihodnosti

Biomimetics in the architecture of tomorrow

Edo Wallner

Sine rgijski konce pt konstrukcijepasivne hiše

Synerg y concept of the passive house construction

Peter Marolt

Simbolika daljnega vzhoda v oblikovanju prostora

The symbolism of the far east in the shaping of space

Lara Slivnik

Umetnostni paviljoni

Art pavilions

 

Raziskave / Research

Tadeja Zupančič, Tomaž Novljan, Matevž Juvančič,

Maruška Šubic Kovač, Andreja Istenič Starčič, Matija Svetina

Izobraževanje o grajenem okolju za trajnostni razvoj Slovenije

Borut Juvanec

Interdisciplinarni center vernakularne arhitekture EU v Ljubljani

Domen Zupančič

Vrednote vernakularne arhitekture Gorenjske in Prekmurja pri strategiji zasnove dejavnosti v prostoru

Vojko Kilar

Uvajanje naprednih tehnologij za povečanje varnosti v arhitekturi sodobnih stanovanjskih stavb 2, 2008

Ilka Čerpes, Primož Boršič, Jure Grohar

Trajnostno oblikovanje kvalitetnega bivalnega okolja

 

Kongresi / Congresses